Solar Technology related terms beginning with M.
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- Maintenance-Free Battery : A sealed battery to which water cannot be added to maintain electrolyte level.
- Majority Carrier : Current carriers (either free electrons or holes) that are in excess in a specific layer of a semiconductor material (electrons in the n-layer, holes in the p-layer) of a cell.
- Maximum Power Point (MPP) : The point on the current-voltage (I-V) curve of a module under illumination, where the product of current and voltage is maximum. For a typical silicon cell, this is at about 0.45 volts.
- Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT) : Means of a power conditioning unit that automatically operates the photovoltaic generator at its maximum power point under all conditions.
- Maximum Power Tracking : Operating a photovoltaic array at the peak power point of the array's I-V curve where maximum power is obtained. Also called peak power tracking.
- Megawatt (MW) : 1,000 kilowatts, or 1 million watts; standard measure of electric power plant generating capacity.
- Megawatt-Hour : 1,000 kilowatt-hours or 1 million watt-hours.
- Microgroove : A small groove scribed into the surface of a solar cell, which is filled with metal for contacts.
- Minority Carrier : A current carrier, either an electron or a hole, that is in the minority in a specific layer of a semiconductor material; the diffusion of minority carriers under the action of the cell junction voltage is the current in a photovoltaic device.
- Minority Carrier Lifetime : The average time a minority carrier exists before recombination.
- Modified Sine Wave : A waveform that has at least three states (i.e., positive, off, and negative). Has less harmonic content than a square wave.
- Modularity : The use of multiple inverters connected in parallel to service different loads.
- Module : See photovoltaic (PV) module.
- Module Derate Factor : A factor that lowers the photovoltaic module current to account for field operating conditions such as dirt accumulation on the module.
- Monolithic : Fabricated as a single structure.
- Movistor : Metal Oxide Varistor. Used to protect electronic circuits from surge currents such as those produced by lightning.
- Multicrystalline : A semiconductor (photovoltaic) material composed of variously oriented, small, individual crystals. Sometimes referred to as polycrystalline or semicrystalline.
- Multijunction Device : A high-efficiency photovoltaic device containing two or more cell junctions, each of which is optimized for a particular part of the solar spectrum.
- Multi-Stage Controller : A charging controller unit that allows different charging currents as the battery nears a full state of charge.