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Solar Technology related terms beginning with F.




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  • Fermi Level : Energy level at which the probability of finding an electron is one-half. In a metal, the Fermi level is very near the top of the filled levels in the partially filled valence band. In a semiconductor, the Fermi level is in the band gap.

  • Fill Factor : The ratio of a photovoltaic cell's actual power to its power if both current and voltage were at their maxima. A key characteristic in evaluating cell performance.

  • Fixed Tilt Array : A photovoltaic array set in at a fixed angle with respect to horizontal.

  • Flat-Plate Array : A photovoltaic (PV) array that consists of non-concentrating PV modules.

  • Flat-Plate Module : An arrangement of photovoltaic cells or material mounted on a rigid flat surface with the cells exposed freely to incoming sunlight.

  • Flat-Plate Photovoltaics (PV) : A PV array or module that consists of nonconcentrating elements. Flat-plate arrays and modules use direct and diffuse sunlight, but if the array is fixed in position, some portion of the direct sunlight is lost because of oblique sun-angles in relation to the array.

  • Float Charge : The voltage required to counteract the self-discharge of the battery at a certain temperature.

  • Float Life : The number of years that a battery can keep its stated capacity when it is kept at float charge.

  • Float Service : A battery operation in which the battery is normally connected to an external current source; for instance, a battery charger which supplies the battery load< under normal conditions, while also providing enough energy input to the battery to make up for its internal quiescent losses, thus keeping the battery always up to full power and ready for service.

  • Float-Zone Process : A method of growing a large-size, high-quality crystal whereby coils heat a polycrystalline ingot placed atop a single-crystal seed. As the coils are slowly raised the molten interface beneath the coils becomes single crystal.

  • Float-Zone Process : In reference to solar photovoltaic cell manufacture, a method of growing a large-size, high-quality crystal whereby coils heat a polycrystalline ingot placed atop a single-crystal seed. As the coils are slowly raised the molten interface beneath the coils becomes a single crystal.

  • Frequency : The number of repetitions per unit time of a complete waveform, expressed in Hertz (Hz).

  • Frequency Regulation : This indicates the variability in the output frequency. Some loads will switch off or not operate properly if frequency variations exceed 1%.

  • Fresnel Lens : An optical device that focuses light like a magnifying glass; concentric rings are faced at slightly different angles so that light falling on any ring is focused to the same point.

  • Full Sun : The amount of power density in sunlight received at the earth's surface at noon on a clear day (about 1,000 Watts/square meter).




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